Podcasts de historia

Don Juan de Austria - Historia

Don Juan de Austria - Historia

Don Juan de Austria

Se conserva el nombre anterior.

(Gbt: dp. 1.015; 1. 215'6 "; b. 32 ', dr. 12'6"; s. 12 k .;
cpl. 153; una. 2 4 ", 8 6 pdr. R.f., 2 1 pdr. R.f.)

Don Juan de Austria fue construido en 1887 en Cartagena España, para la Armada Española. Hundido el 1 de mayo de 1898 durante la Batalla de la Bahía de Manila, fue sacado de la bahía bajo contrato, revisado y reacondicionado en Hong Kong, y comisionado allí el 11 de abril de 1900, con el comandante T. C. McLean al mando.

Del 5 de junio al 18 de octubre de 1900, Don Juan de Austria estuvo anclado frente a Cantón, China, para proteger los intereses estadounidenses. Zarpó de Hong Kong el 25 de noviembre y llegó a Cavite, P.I., 3 días después. Fue empleada en Filipinas en tareas generales relacionadas con la toma de posesión del territorio recién adquirido, apoyando las operaciones del Ejército contra las fuerzas nativas insurgentes, transportando tropas y provisiones, bloqueando rutas de suministro insurgentes y tomando y registrando varias ciudades para asegurar el control estadounidense. Aparte de una visita a Yokohama, Japón, del 1 de junio al 27 de julio de 1902, continuó con su deber en la pacificación de las islas hasta el 19 de abril de 1903.

Después de las reparaciones en Yokohama, Japón, del 27 de abril al 1 de junio de 1903, Don Juan de Austria navegó a lo largo de la costa china para maniobrar con la flota, una indicación del interés estadounidense intensificado en el Lejano Oriente después de la adquisición de territorios insulares del Pacífico. Partió de Hong Kong el 16 de diciembre de 1903 hacia los Estados Unidos, navegando por Singapur, Ceilán, India, el Canal de Suez y los puertos del Mediterráneo para llegar a Portsmouth Navy Yard el 21 de abril de 1904. Estaba fuera de servicio por reparaciones desde el 5 de mayo de 1904 al 10 de diciembre de 1905.

Uniéndose al Tercer Escuadrón, la Flota Atlántica Don Juan de Austria zarpó de Norfolk el 28 de febrero de 1906 para patrullar la República Dominicana para proteger los intereses estadounidenses. Regresó a Portsmouth Navy Yard el 21 de febrero de 1907 y fue puesta fuera de servicio allí el 7 de marzo de 1907. Prestada a la Milicia Naval de Michigan, zarpó de Portsmouth el 28 de julio por el río St. Lawrence a Detroit, donde sirvió como entrenamiento hasta Estados Unidos. entrada en la Primera Guerra Mundial.

Don Juan de Austia se volvió a poner en servicio el 6 de abril de 1917 y salió de Detroit el 17 de julio hacia Newport, Rhode Island, llegando el 6 de agosto. Patrullaba en la costa y en el mar frente a la costa de Nueva Inglaterra. Llegó a Nueva York el 7 de agosto de 1918 para escoltar a dos remolcadores del ejército y sus remolques de barcazas a las Bermudas, luego regresó a Newport el 1 de octubre y remolcó a Charles Whittemore a Charleston SC, antes de volver a visitar las Bermudas para escoltar a un grupo de submarinos estadounidenses y franceses a Newport, llegando 1 de noviembre. El 3 de abril de 1919 Don Juan de Austria llegó a Boston para unirse a la escolta especial para los transportes que regresaban a los miembros de la 26.a División, Ejército de los Estados Unidos, desde Europa. Fue dada de baja en Portsmouth el 18 de junio de 1919 y vendida el 16 de octubre de 1919.


Archivo: Velázquez - El bufón llamado Don Juan de Austria (Museo del Prado, 1632) .jpg

Este trabajo está en el dominio publico en su país de origen y en otros países y áreas donde el término de copyright es el del autor vida más 100 años o menos.

También debe incluir una etiqueta de dominio público de los Estados Unidos para indicar por qué este trabajo es de dominio público en los Estados Unidos.


Don Juan de Austria

A későbbi Don Juan de Austria V. Károly német-római császár és egy regensburgi polgárlány, Barbara Blomberg gyermekeként született. Először Brüsszelben élt, ahol anyja megházasodott, majd 1554-ig Madrid közelében nevelőszülőknél lakott Geronimo (Jeromos) néven. Ekkor a császár egyik fő bizalmasa, Don Luis Méndez de Quijada családjába került, Villagarcia várába. [2] V. Károly végrendeletének záradékában elismerte fiának Geronimót, és örököse gondoskodásába ajánlotta. V. Károlyt törvényes fia, Fülöp követte a trónon, aki 1559-ben elismerte féltestvérének a törvénytelen fiút, és a Don Juan de Austria nevet adta neki. [1] [3]

Don Juan de Austria három éven át Alcalfiban tanult unokatestvérével, a spanyol trón várományosával, Don Carlosszal és Alessandro Farnesével, Parma leendő hercegével. A király egyházi pályára szánta, de Don Juan elérte bátyjánál, hogy katona lehessen. 1568-ban egy 33 gályából álló egység parancsnokává nevezték ki, és első akciójában az algériai kalózok ellen harcolt. [1]

1569–70-ben a felkelő moriszkók ellen lépett fel Granadában, és az egyik csatában súlyosan meg is sebesült. Hadi sikereit követően a Szent Liga flottájának lett a fővezére, amelyet II. Fülöp, V. Piusz pápa, a Velencei Köztársaság és több városállam, illetve lovagrend állított ki a törökök ellen. 1571. október 7-én a flotta elsöprő győzelmet aratott a lepantói csatában Müezzinzade Ali pasa hajóhada felett. Don Juan de Austria a keresztény világ ünnepelt hőse lett. 1573-ban elfoglalta Tuniszt. A szövetség azonban szétesett, és a velenceiek különbékét kötöttek a szultánnal, és Tunisz egy év múlva ismét elesett. [1] [2]

1576-prohibición Németalföldre küldték helytartónak, amely a reformáció lázában forrongott. Don Juan de Austria 1578. 31 de enero de Gembloux közelében legyőzte a lázadókat. A spanyol hajóhadat Anglia ellen készítette volna fel, amikor a namuri táborban kitört pestisjárvány áldozata lett. [1]


Inhoitsvazeichnis

Vom Aprü 1546 bis en agosto eini woa da Kaisa Koarl da fimfde auf an Reichstog in Regnschbuag. Ea woa domois 46 Joa oid und hod vamuatli a Wengl a Zaschtreiung gsuacht vo de schwarn Regiarungsgschäft. Wia eam de Maid Barbara Blomberg aufgfoin es, des woas ma heid nimma. Megligawoas hods eam bei da Tofö aufgwoat (dt .: am Tische bedient). Auf jeden Foi hod se zwischn da 19jahrign Giartlastochta und im Kaisa a oiseits bekaunnte Romanzn ogschpüd, mid de bekaunntn Foign. De Frucht vo dea kuazn, owa gachn Liab woa a 1547 gbuans Bibal, des aufn Naum Johann tauft wuan is. Zufälligawoas es ea am sobn Tog af d´Wöd kema wia sei Votta da Kaisa, a am 24 Februa, nua 47 Joa schpada.

Sei Votta da Kaisa hodn zwoa za seina Lebzeit ned offiziö ois sein Suhn aunakaunt, owa ea hodn im oita vo drei Joa seina Mudda ognumma und des Biabal noch Schpanien vabrocht. Duat es ea bis ins 6./7. Lebnsjoa vo oafochi Leid aufzogn wuan, vom Violinschpüla Fraunz Massy und sein Weiwal da Anna de Medina . Mid an Oita vo umma 7 Joa, 1554 hodn a Vatrauta vom Kaisa, da Kaummaherr Adrian du Bois ois sein Suhn Gerónimo in sei Famüli ghoid. Ea und sei Gaddin de Magdalena de Ulloa hom dem Biabal lesn und schreim gleand und ois sei ausgebna Suhn hoda aa a schtaundesmassige Eaziahung griagt. Da Kaisa Koarl hodn vamuatli oanige Moi aufgsuacht. Owa bis zan Tod vom Kaisa hod da Johann ned gwisst das dea sei Votta woa.

Nu bevua da Kaisa Koarl 1558 vaschtuam es, hod ea en un Kodizill za sein Testament bschtimmt, daß sie sei Suhn, da Kini Phillip II umman Johann, sein Hoibbruada kimman und eam a través de un geistlign Bruaf ausbüdn soid. Dahea hod a den 11 jaarign Geronimo annan Hof ghoid. Do hod da Geronimo eascht eafoan das da Kaisa Koarl sei Votta gwest is und das ea richtigawoas Johann- Juan hoaßad. Am Madrida Hof es ea mid sein foßt gleichoitrign Neffn Don carlos eazogn wuan, dea da Bua vo sein Hoibbruada Phillipp woa.

Olle am Hof ​​haum daun gwisst das da Don Juan a Bua vom vaschtuamna Koarl V. is. En da Raungfoig hay un noch da kinilign Famüli owa nu vua olle Grandn kemma.

Dass aus dem Buam nia und nimma a Geistliga und Kardinal wead, hod se glei aussagschtöd. Ois 1565 de Tiakn Malta belogat hom, woit da 18 jahrige Don Juan unbdingd midkempfn. Ea woit sogoa hoamli oposchn, owa sei Bruada hods eam vabotn und wida zruck annan Hof ghoit.

Um sein Bruada z´bscheftign hod eam da Kini oiweu wichtigare Aufgobm iwatrogn. Mediados de 21 Joa (1568) hod eam sei Bruada zan Capitán general del mar mediterraneo y adriatico eanaunt. Ois Aufpassa und Leahrmoasta hod a eam den eafoahna Militäa Solicita aun d´Seitn gschtöd. Und mid dem es una im Westlign Middlmeea mid a boa Schiff auf Korsarnjogd gaunga.

1569 und 1570 hod da Don Juan ois Kommandant de Aufschtänd vo de Moriskn en Alpujaras (Andalusien) nidagschlogn.

En Phillip sei Suhn, da Don carlos hod se mid sein Votta ned vaschtaundn und woitn osetzn lossn. Ea woit den Don Juan iwaredn das ea eam dabei intaschtitzn soid. Da Don Juan es owa za sein Hoibbruada gschtaundn und hod eam vom Plan vo seim Suhn vazöht.

De tiakische Flottn es oiwei schteaka wuan. Se hom des Estlige und vom westlign Middlmeea den Sidn beherscht. Eanane Korsarn haum mid eanane schnön Galeern Jogd af de kristlign Schiff gmocht. Und vo de nuadafrikanischn Barbareskn-Schtootn aus homs sogoa Schtäd und Küstnlaundschtrich en Italien und Sidfraunkreich iwafoin. Haga haums braundschozt und de Einwohna vaschleppt und auf de Sklavnmärkt vakaft.

De Tiakn hom a grod de Insl Zypan erobat und eana Kriagsflottn hod umma 5/6000 Schinackl umfosst. Dahea hom se 1571 Venedig, da Pobst und de Schpania za da Liga de Heilign vabünd, um gmoasaum eana Owehr bessa ozschtimma z´kenna.

Aufn Vuaschlog vom Pobst Pío V. hod ma en Don Juan de Austria zan Genaralkommandant da Mear eanaunnt. Da Flottn haum Kriagsschiff vo Schpanien, Savoyen, Genua, Malta (Johannita), Toskana, vom Pobst und vo Venedig aukeat. De Venediga haum grod an neichn Schiffstip vom Schtopö glossn. De 6 Galeassn woan daun a in da schpodan Ausanaundasezung Schlochtentscheidand.

Bade Gegna haum de direkte Ausanaundsezung gsuacht. De tiakische Flottn, mit umma 260 Schiff haum im Goif vo Patras gaunkad. Eana Almirante woa da Kaptan-i Derya Ali Pascha auf seim Admiralsschiff da Sultana.

De Schiff vo da heilign Liga haum vua da Insl Oxia gwoat. Da Admiral woa da Don Juan auf sein Schiff da La Real und sei Flottn hod aus 206 Galeern und de 6 Galeassn b´schtaundn. Mediados de eppa 40.000 Seemauna und Ruadara. Sowia umma 18.000 Soidotn.

Fruah am Sundamoagn, dem 7.10.1571, haum se de Flottn za Schlocht aufgschtöd. Bade hom je drei Gschwada ois Schlochtuatnung gwöht, mid je oan Gschwada in eanan Ruckn ois Reserv. De Schiffsreih da Tiakn woa eppa 1 km lenga, se hom jo a mera Schiff ghobd.

Um Neini-dreißg es losgaunga und um Zehne-viazg san de easchtn Schiff aufanaundakrocht. De Kämpf san hin und heagaunga. Auf bade Soatn es un Schiff nochn Aundan zgrund gaunga. 5 Galeern hom z´gleich des Admiralsschiff vom Don Juan augriffa. Boid haum 30 Schiff um des Admiralschiff kempft. De Janitscharn san mid da Leibgardn vom Don Juan zaumkrocht, wobei a da Don Juan am Fuaß valezt wuan is. Soga de Ruadasklavn hod ma freilossn und eana de Freiheit vaschprochn, wauns höffan de Tiakn o´zwean. Aufn sidlign Flügl hod da Uludsch Ali de Iwahaund griagt. De Tiakn hom sogoa des maltesische Admiralsschiff gentad. Ois da Don Juan frische Kräft za Hüf ummigschickt, hod da Uludsch Ali gneist das fia de Tiakn de Seeschlocht valuan woa.

Ea hod mid seine Galeern an Ausbruch vasuacht und des es eam a mid eppa 30 Galeern glunga. Así que woa ea da Oanzige vo de tiakischn Beföhshowa dea endkema es. Weu ea dem Suitan de maltesische Kommandoflaggn iwagem hod, is ea dafia mid an Schweat (Kilic) auszoachnt wuan und hod seit dem Kilic Ali Pascha ghoaßn.

De Tiakn hom umma 30.000 Mau valuan. Eanane todn Ruadasklavn san goa ned zöht wuan. 150 Galeern san vo da Liga erowat und 110 san nu vasenkt wuan. Augebli davo umma 30 Schtuck soidn davo de Tiakn söwa vasenkt hom. De Heilige Liga hod 13 Galeern valuan und eppa 8.000 Mau. Vü Iwalebande woan schwaa valezt, así que un da Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, dea a mitkempft und zwoa Schiß en de Brust und oan en de Haund ogrigd hod. Spada hod a daun den Mau vo La Mancha, Don Quijote gschribm.

De Kristn nuztn den Sieg owa ned aus, s´ewige Misstraun hod wida iwahaund gnumma. Und so haum de Tiakn eana Flottn boid wida neich afgschtöd ghobt. De Veneziana woa da eigne Haundl mid de Tiakn wichtiga und se haum den Valust vo Zypan akzeptiat. Jo se haum de Tiakn sogoa an jahrlign Tribut zoit und san aus da heilign Liga ausgschiedn. Da tiakische Großwesir, hod in ana Depeschn an Venedig so gschrim:

"Indem mia Eich des Kinireich Zypan entrissn hom, hom ma Eich an Oam ausgrissn. Indem Ia insare Flottn bsiagt hobd, hobds Ia uns nua in Boart rasiat. Eicha Oam woxt neamma noch, owa insa Boat woxt iazt nua um so dichta"

Psychologisch woa da Sieg in dera Schlocht owa scho wichti, den easchmolig es un osmanische Flottn so entscheidand gschlogn wuan. De tiakischn Schiff haum se daun a ins estlige Middlmeea zruckzogn.

Da Don Juan de Austria es nochand fian Sieg, vom Pobst midn Titl "Erretta vom Obndlaund" geehrt wuan. Sein Auteu vo da Siegabeute hod a de eignan Vawundatn iwalossn. Noch da Seeschlocht vo Lepanto woit a weida gegn de Tiakn kempfn. Owa do eam da Pobst Gregor XIII zan Daunk fia den Schlochtnsieg a Kinischtö vaschoffa woit, es da Phillip II. a Wengl mistrauisch wuan und hod en Don Juan a Wengl eibremst.

1573 hod da Don Juan mid ana Flottn gegn de Barbaresknschtootn kempfa deaffa. Se haum Túnez erowat. De Schtod es owa scho boid wida valuan gaunga ois da Uluj Ali de Schtod mid ana großn tiakischn Flottn befreit hod. 1575 es de Don Juan zan Schtoothoata vo de schpanischn Besitztima en Italien ernaunnt wuan.

De vom Pobst Gregor XIII vuagschlogane Ehe mid da schottischn Kenigin Maria Stuart hod sei Bruada, da Kini Phillip II ned ealaubt. Schtod da Hoazad soit ea, af Biddn vo sein Kinibruada, 1576 Schtotthoita (Genaral Gouvaneua) en el destete de Nidalaund. Do jo eigendli Schpanien praktisch Pleite woa, san de schpanischn Soidotn im Nuadn schlecht zoit wuan. Obwoi da Don Juan schtreng Katholisch woa, de Meran por nuadlign Nidalenda owa Calvinista gwest san hod como im Guadn vasuacht. Ea hod Friednsvahaundlungan und den Ewign Edikt dawiakt. Weu da Phillip oiweu weniga Göd fia de Söldna aus Schpanien gschickt hod, woa a eivaschtaundn das se Oziagn soidn. Da ea de Maria Stuart nu oiweu ned ogschriem hod, woit ea das de Soidotn de Niedalaund aufn Seeweg valossn deaffan, weu do hed as megligawoas fia a Invasion Englaunds braucha kena. De nuadligan Provinzn hom owa draf beschtaundn das de Soidotn aufn Laundweg hoamroasn.

Oiso hod a söwa, mid buagtm Göd a kloane Armee aufgschtöd. Und ea es un daun vo de Generalschtootn zan Gouvaneua gwöht wuan. De Provinzn Seelaund und Hollaund san owa vo Fraunkreich intaschtizt wuan und homna schpoda oglehnt. Ea hod daun des Kastell en Naumur erowat. En Rijmenam owa a kloanare Schlocht valun. Daun owa mera Schtäd erowat. Sein Freind und Sekretea Juan de Escovedo hod a noch Schpanien za sein kiniglichn Bruada um Hüf gschickt. Und duat hodn da kiniglige Sekretea da Antonio Pérez am 31. Meaz 1578 duach Hescha en Madrid umbringa lossn. Da Don Juan hod do vamuatli scho des Vatraun vo sein Bruada valun ghobd, dem ea woascheinli zu Populer wuan is.

Weu ea oiweu Gödproblem ghobt hod, es eam ois zlaungsaum gaunga. Nochn Moard vo seim Sekretea woa a aa schtoak niedagschlogn. Des Regnwetta und da nosse Bodn hom a Weidakempfn schwaa megli gmocht. In de Födloga hod zweng da maunglndn Hygiene a de Pest (cólera, tifus?) Grassiat. Und an De es ea vamuatli aa erkraunkt. Da Ea scho lenga krenkli woa es da Vadocht afkema, daß ea vagift wuan warad. Auf Vaaunlossung vo da englischn Kinigin Elisabeth de oiweu nu gfiacht hod, das a do nu de Maria Stuart heiratn kunnt.

Da lezte Kreizritta vo Eiropa es nua 31 Joah oid wuan.

Sei Armee hod fia eam a groß Begrebniss oghoitnund daun es un zaschticklt wuan und seine Köapateu san, en Alkohoi eiglegt, duach des vafeindte Fraunkreich noch Schpanien brocht wuan. Do hod ma daun seine Trimma wida zaumdau und schpoda im Escorial, noh seim Vota en un Sarkophag beigsezt.

Da Kini Phillip II hod daun de Aufzoachnungan vom Don Juan de Austria iwaprüfn lossn und koan Beweis vo Untreu oda Untaschlogung gfundn. Drauf hi hod a sein Sekretea Antonio Pérez eischpian lossn. Den Dea woa vamuatli Schuid drau das a zwischn de zwoa Briada an Unfried gschtift hod.

Aun da Herberg zan goadanan Kreiz en Regschbuag es un Tafal zu Eainnarung aun Eam. (Texto original):

En dem Haisl vo oida Oat,

hod offt gruat noch launga Foaht.

Herr Kayser Carl der Fünfft gnaunnt.

En olla Wöd goa woih bkaunnt.

Dea hod a do zu guada Schtund,

Geküßt ana Jungfrow Mundt.

Daun draus eawux dem Votta gleich,

Da Don Juan vo Östareich.

Dea bei Lepanto en da Schlocht,

Vanicht hod da Tiakn Mocht.

Da Herr vagöts eam Ollezeit,

Entonces Iazt, wia a en Ewigkeit.

Ois ia Suhn noch Schpanien brocht wuan is, hod mas midn kaisalign Beaumtn Hironymus Kegel vaheirat. Dazua homs 5000 Guidn Haozadguat griagt und daun 400 Tola jeds Joa. 1551 sans noch Brüssl iwasiedlt wo ia Mau fia de Ausristung vo da Armee zuschtändi woa. Midanaund homs nu drei Un poco ghobt. Ois ia Mau 1569 gschtuam es hods midn Gejd ned guad ausgschaut. Do hod ia da schpanische Kini Phillip da zwoate a guade Apanasch zuagschprochn. Ian Suhn Johann hods nua a oanzigsmoi nu gseng. Des woa 1567 en de schpanischn Niedalaund. Nochm Tod vom Johann es daun noch Schpanien zogn, wos an Hof mid Deanstbotn griagt hod. Auf dem es una am 18.12.1597 ois Madame Barbara de Blomberg vaschtuam. Ois ma ian Nochlos guadnd hod está haciendo un aa Woppnring vom Kaisa Koal V. gfund wuan.

De foigandn Daman hom nochwoasli a Gspusi midm Don Juan de Austria ghobt:


Don Juan de Austria - Historia

Estos mismos Caballeros Católicos habían sido expulsados ​​de su bastión anterior, la Isla de Rodas, en 1522, por los turcos otomanos. Bajo Solimán el Magnífico, los musulmanes estaban presionando con fuerza a través de Arabia, Siria, Irak, Egipto y el norte de África, y habían establecido una sólida base en la costa norte del Mar Negro, la puerta de entrada a toda Europa. En 1526, los húngaros habían sido derrotados en la batalla de Mohacs, y solo los Habsburgo austríacos se interponían ahora en el camino del avance musulmán. Viena fue atacada en 1529, pero los musulmanes no pudieron tomar la capital y su campaña, que se extendió demasiado, fracasó.


Nuestro Señor y Nuestra Señora, arriba a la izquierda, bendiciendo la flota católica en Lepanto
Ahora, los turcos habían levantado una flota de 181 barcos, que transportaban a unos 30.000 soldados, y Malta era el premio que buscaban. Su objetivo era saquear y barrer todos los barcos de la Europa cristiana del Mediterráneo. Entonces, con el control de las rutas marítimas y las rutas comerciales, con su poder económico y naval supremo, toda Europa estaría a punto de caer ante ellos.

La flota turca apareció frente a la costa de Malta y sitió la isla. Durante todo el verano de 1565, la contienda por Malta se desarrolló. Al final, los Caballeros de San Juan (Caballeros de Malta) obtuvieron la victoria y los turcos se vieron obligados a retirarse derrotados. Sin embargo, no puso fin a la amenaza de los turcos otomanos.

En 1566, Pío V ascendió a la Cátedra de San Pedro en Roma. Pío V era un monje dominico con reputación de piedad y austeridad. Maestro de filosofía y teología durante 16 años, a diferencia de algunos Papas anteriores, fue un hombre humilde que continuó llevando la vida ascética de un simple monje incluso después de convertirse en Papa.

Pío V también se tomó muy en serio la defensa de la cristiandad contra los turcos otomanos. Sabía que no se iban a ir y dejar Europa en paz. Viena y las fronteras orientales seguían estando amenazadas por el poder y las incursiones militares musulmanes, y los propios Estados Pontificios pronto podrían estar en peligro. Chipre fue atacado nuevamente en 1570. Al ver el creciente peligro para la cristiandad, Pío V llamó a "La Liga Santa", que consta de los Estados Pontificios, España, Génova, Venecia y los Caballeros de Malta, para hacer frente a la amenaza musulmana.


Don Juan de Austria, comandante en jefe de la flota de la Liga Santa, infligió la mayor derrota naval a los musulmanes en la historia.
Se reunió una flota naval cristiana bajo el mando general del almirante Don Juan de Austria. Aunque joven (veinteañeros), Don John era un comandante naval capaz. Los españoles estaban comandados por Santa Cruz, los genoveses por Andrea Doria y los venecianos comandados por Agostin Barbarigo y Sebastián Veniero. La flota bajo el mando de Don Juan tenía unos 300 barcos fuertes, con más de 100 barcos y 30.000 hombres abastecidos por Felipe II de España. El Papa equipó y suministró personalmente 12 galeras papales, y también proporcionó fondos para muchas de las otras. El contingente veneciano era de alrededor de 100 barcos, tripulados en parte por soldados españoles adicionales. En la flota veneciana eran seis galeras. Más pesadas, más anchas y mucho más lentas que las galeras convencionales, sin embargo, eran tecnológicamente avanzadas: las plataformas de cañones pesados ​​y los acorazados de su época. En total, más de 50.000 hombres sirvieron a la flota como remeros y otros 30.000 eran soldados de guerra.

En septiembre de 1571, Don Juan trasladó la flota católica al este para interceptar a los turcos en Corfú, pero los turcos ya habían desembarcado, aterrorizado a la población y luego se trasladaron. Mientras estaba anclado frente a la costa de Cefalonia, a Don Juan le llegó la noticia de que la fortaleza cristiana de Famagusta en Chipre había caído en manos de los turcos, y que todos los prisioneros eran torturados y luego ejecutados por los musulmanes.

Don John luego levó anclas y se movió para entablar combate con la flota turca en el Golfo de Lepanto, frente a la costa sur de Grecia. La flota turca, unos 330 barcos fuertes, bajo el mando de Ali Pasha, había sido reforzada por Uluch Ali, el Bey de Argel y jefe de la notoria banda de musulmanes. corsarios (piratas) que durante mucho tiempo habían aterrorizado a los barcos católicos en el Mediterráneo.

En la noche del 6 de octubre, con un viento favorable a sus espaldas, Ali Pasha movió su flota hacia el oeste hacia la desembocadura del Golfo de Patras para interceptar los barcos de la Liga Santa que se acercaban. El enfrentamiento que se avecinaba sería el enfrentamiento naval más grande desde la Batalla de Actium en el 30 a. C.


Don Juan de Austria en batalla, en la proa del barco, pintado por Juan Luna y Novicio
Al amanecer del 7 de octubre de 1571 se encontraron las dos flotas. Don Juan dividió su flota en tres secciones: a la izquierda (norte), los venecianos al mando de Agostin Barbarigo a la derecha (sur), Andrea Doria dirigió las galeras genoveses y papales en el centro, Don Juan comandó su buque insignia y galeras. Santa Cruz, con una fuerza de 35 barcos españoles y venecianos, se mantuvo en reserva. Ordenó a sus capitanes que no dispararan hasta que "estuvieran lo suficientemente cerca como para ser salpicado de sangre musulmana". Los arietes de hierro fueron retirados de los barcos cristianos, ya que el plan era abordar y luchar cuerpo a cuerpo. Dos de las grandes galeras venecianas fueron remolcadas a su posición frente a cada una de las tres divisiones cristianas.

La flota de Ali Pasha se acercó en una formación de media luna gigante, y al ver la flota enemiga, también ordenó que su flota se dividiera en tres divisiones. El propio Ali Pasha ocupó la posición intermedia frente a Don John y cargó hacia adelante para enfrentarse a los barcos de Don John. Las galeras venecianas abrieron fuego y casi inmediatamente ocho barcos musulmanes fueron alcanzados y comenzaron a hundirse. Las galeras católicas, con sus cubiertas llenas de soldados, abrieron fuego con arcabuces (1) y ballestas mientras los barcos musulmanes se acercaban. Los hombres de Ali Pasha intentaron abordar los barcos católicos, pero los soldados españoles tenían experiencia y estaban bien disciplinados. Ataque tras ataque fue rechazado con disparos mortales de sus ballestas y arcabuces.


Fresco del plan de batalla de Lepanto por Antonio Danti
Don Juan ordenó abordar y tomar el barco de Ali Pasha. Dos veces el ataque de abordaje de los soldados españoles fue rechazado, pero en el tercer intento se abalanzaron sobre la cubierta, ahora bañados en sangre, y tomaron el barco. Ali Pasha fue capturado y decapitado en el acto (en contra de los deseos de Don John), y la bandera de batalla de la flota otomana cayó del palo mayor. La cabeza del almirante turco fue escupida en una larga pica y levantada en alto para que todos los barcos enemigos la vieran. El ataque turco en el centro se derrumbó, y Don Juan envió sus barcos en persecución de los turcos en retirada, y también se volvió para ayudar en las batallas que se libraban en sus flancos.

A la derecha católica, Uluch Ali y sus piratas habían atravesado las líneas de Doria y lograron capturar el buque insignia de los Caballeros de San Juan. Santa Cruz, al ver lo sucedido, acudió al rescate, y Uluch Ali se vio obligado a abandonar su premio. Los genoveses estaban en una lucha por sus vidas con el resto de los barcos de Uluch Ali, pero después de que Don John rompió la flota enemiga en el centro, se volvió y acudió en ayuda de los genoveses. Los corsarios argelinos fueron finalmente vencidos y huyeron para salvar sus vidas en plena retirada.

El almirante Mahomet Sirocco, al mando de la derecha turca (a la izquierda católica), navegó cerca de las rocas y bajíos en la costa norte del golfo y pudo flanquear las galeras venecianas de Barbarigo. El buque insignia de Barbarigo fue rodeado por ocho galeras enemigas, y el almirante católico cayó muerto por las flechas turcas. Su buque insignia fue tomado por un tiempo, pero finalmente llegó la ayuda y la galera insignia de Sirocco se hundió. El almirante turco fue sacado del agua y, como Ali Pasha, asesinado en el acto.

El compromiso duró, en total, entre cuatro y cinco horas. Cuando todo terminó, 8.000 hombres que habían navegado con Don John estaban muertos y otros 16.000 heridos. Los turcos y Uluch Ali corsarios tenía más de 25.000 muertos e incontables miles más heridos y capturados. Más de 12.000 galeotes católicos también habían sido rescatados de los musulmanes. El veneciano galeras había cobrado un alto precio a la flota turca. Fue una gran victoria para la Santa Liga y la cristiandad.


Santos Pedro, Roque, Justina y Marcos piden a Nuestra Señora la flota católica - Paolo Veronese
Al amanecer del 7 de octubre de 1571, según consta en los Archivos Vaticanos, el Papa Pío V, acompañado de un grupo de fieles, entró en la Basílica de Santa María la Mayor para rezar el Rosario y pedir a Nuestra Señora que interceda por una victoria católica. Las oraciones continuaron en Roma mientras las flotas católica y musulmana luchaban a lo lejos en el Golfo de Lepanto. Más tarde en el día, se dice que el Papa interrumpió repentinamente su negocio con algunos cardenales y, mirando hacia arriba, gritó:

"¡Una tregua a los negocios! Nuestra gran tarea en este momento es agradecer a Dios por la victoria que acaba de dar al ejército católico".

El Papa, por supuesto, no tenía forma de saber que la batalla se estaba desarrollando y decidida ese mismo día. (¡No hay teléfonos celulares en 1571!)

Cuando la noticia de la victoria finalmente llegó a Europa, las campanas de las iglesias sonaron en ciudades de todo el continente. La Batalla de Lepanto fue una victoria decisiva, con solo 40 de los más de 300 barcos musulmanes sobreviviendo al enfrentamiento. La fuerza turca de unos 75.000 hombres estaba en ruinas.

La batalla, aunque fue una gran victoria para la Europa católica, no acabó con la amenaza de invasión ni acabó con el poder de los turcos otomanos. En los años venideros seguirían más batallas navales y terrestres, y la propia Viena sería atacada una y otra vez.

Hoy en día, el largo enfrentamiento entre la cristiandad y el Islam todavía es evidente en la geografía política y étnica de Europa, África, Bizancio y el norte de Rusia. La batalla también se extiende, en diversos grados, por todo el Cercano y Lejano Oriente, y también por las Islas del Pacífico.

Muchos caballeros, soldados y marineros cristianos han muerto defendiendo a la cristiandad contra los ataques del Islam a lo largo de los siglos. Hoy, las fronteras de muchos países europeos, Canadá y Estados Unidos están prácticamente abiertas de par en par, y el viejo enemigo está invitado a entrar y sentirse como en casa. Y muchos 'cristianos' en Occidente están demasiado ocupados disfrutando de su prosperidad material como para molestarse con una historia desagradable.

Pero el enemigo no se ha olvidado de la historia. Lo recuerda todo muy bien y todavía se toma muy en serio su religión. Su objetivo a lo largo de los años no ha cambiado en lo más mínimo y es muy paciente. El enemigo interior ahora está sonriendo, esperando el momento oportuno.

Y los caballeros cristianos muertos hace mucho tiempo, nuestros antepasados ​​en la fe, probablemente estén revolcándose en sus tumbas ahora mismo, tratando desesperadamente de gritar una advertencia. El capítulo final, al parecer, aún no se ha escrito.


Ioan de Austria

Ioan al Austriei (cunoscut și ca Don Juan de Austria, n. 24 de febrero de 1547, Ratisbona - d. 1 octombrie 1578, Brujas), a fost un principe, general și amiral spaniol.

Ioan era fiul natural al lui Carol Quintul, împărat romano-german și al Barbarei Blomberg a fost educat în secret in Spania.

En 1569 una reprimat revolta maurilor (moriscos) din Spania. A fost recunoscut de Filip al II-lea al Spaniei drept frate vitreg iar în 1559 i s-a atribit numele Don Juan de Austria.

În 1571, a comandat flota Ligii Sfinte, formată de Papa Pius al V-lea, Spania și Veneția, învingându-i pe turci în bătălia de la Lepanto, iar în 1573 a cucerit Tunisul.

Cariera sa politică a început să se clatine en 1576, după ce a fost numit guvernator general al Țărilor de Jos spaniole, în timpul revoltelor olandeze împotriva restaurării catolicismului. Între timp, și-a făcut planuri mărețe de a se căsători cu Maria Stuart, regina Scoției, și de ao alunga pe Elisabeta I de pe tronul Angliei, dar a murit de tifos la vârsta de 31 de ani, înainte de a-și la îndeplinire aceste planuri.


Juan de Austria

Narodil se z císařova poměru s měšťanskou dívkou Barborou Blomberg z německého Řezna, kde Karel V. pobýval roku 1546 během říšského sněmu. Již ve čtyřech letech ho matka na císařův pokyn odeslala do Španělska. Tam žil nejprve v rodině císařského hudebníka Francisca Massy a posléze se v roce 1554 dostal do výchovy císařského komorníka Luise Quijada. & # 911 & # 93 Pěstouni ho nazývali Jéronimo.

Císař Karel V. během života Juana oficiálně neuznal za člena habsburského rodu, avšak k závěti připojil list, v němž žádal svého nástupce, aby tak učinil. Od roku 1559 žil Juan na dvoře španělského krále Filipa II., Který jej uznal roku 1561 za svého polovičního bratra a udělil mu titul El Infante (princ). Spolu s infantem donem Carlosem navštěvoval od roku 1561 univerzitu v Alcalá de Henares. Byl to právě Juan, kdo upozornil krále na chystaný útěk infanta Carlose v roce 1567. & # 912 & # 93 Toho roku se stal otcem nemanželské dcery Anny.

Vojenská kariéra [editovat | editovat zdroj]

Podle císařovy poslední vůle se měl Juan věnovat cirkevní kariéře, načež se Filip II. roku 1564 pokoušel u papeže Pia IV. Juanovi získat místo kardinála. & # 912 & # 93 Juan však toužil po vojenské kariéře, pro niž od útlého věku projevoval značné nadání. O tom, že por se měl stát vojevůdcem, přesvědčil krále definitivně v roce 1565, když se chtěl na vlastní pěst připojit k protitureckému tažení vyvolanému ohrožením Malty. & # 913 & # 93 V roce 1567 ho Filip II. jmenoval admirálem španělské flotivamente. Juan de Austria se nejdříve zabýval bojem s berbarskými piráty ze Severní Afriky (1568), a protože se osvědčil, bylo mu svěřeno velení při tažení proti povstání morisků v Grenadě. Uspěl i zde a v roce 1571 se již jako uznávaný vojevůdce stal velitelem flotily Svaté ligy, což byla aliance Janova, Benátek, Španělska a papežského státu proti Osmanské říši. 7. října 1571 rozdrtil osmanskou flotilu v bitvě u Lepanta, čímž zarazil tureckou rozpínavost ve Středomoří. Toto vítězství značně zvýšilo jeho sebevědomí, leč jeho bratr sledoval jeho vzrůstající popularitu s nechutí a na Juanovy vojenské úspěchy žárlil. V průběhu roku 1573 dobyl Juan několik území contra Tunisu a chtěl je přetvořit ve vlastní rodovou doménu. Ani od španělského krále ani od italských spojenců však neobdržel dostatečnou podporu, a proto Turci tato území v jeho nepřítomnosti na podzim 1574 opět získali zpět. & # 914 & # 93

Nizozemský místodržitel [ editovat | editovat zdroj]

Don Juan de Austria se nadále zabýval plánem získat vlastní království. Zaměřil se na Marii Stuartovnu, s níž se chtěl oženit a vládnout Anglii. Filip II. ho však přiměl, aby v roce 1576 přijal jmenování guvernérem Španělského Nizozemí. Do Nizozemí přijel ve velmi nevhodnou dobu, neboť nezaplacená španělská armáda drasticky vyplenila během bezvládí 8. listopadu 1576 Antverpy. Pobouření se Juanovi podařilo uklidnit podepsáním Věčného ediktu, v němž vyměňoval svoje uznání místodržícím za odchod španělských vojsk, ačkoliv hrozilo, že se stane jen nominálním vládcem, jehož by bylo možné kdykoliv vyhnat. Γ] Ani jedna strana však nebyla s dohodou zcela spokojena, a proto se na počátku roku 1578 opět začalo válčit. Koncem léta 1578 Juan onemocněl, pravděpodobně na tyfus a 1. října 1578 zemřel. Jeho tělo bylo poté tajně převezeno do Španělska a pohřbeno v Escorialu. Δ]


Spain’s First Caudillo: Don Juan Jose of Austria

Henry Kamen profiles a natural son of Philip IV who had hopes of succeeding to the crown and for two years led the Spanish government.

To most students of history Don Juan of Austria is the man who won the battle of Lepanto. One century after him, however, another Don Juan blazed another spectacular career that remains one of the most significant - and least well known - in Spanish history. As leader of the first modern military revolt (the Spanish word is pronunciamiento ) against the central government, Don Juan possessed many of the aspects of a national leader (caudillo).

A natural son of Philip IV (1621-1665) by the actress Maria Calderon, and born on April 7th, 1629, Don Juan Jose was brought up as a royal prince. He was given a careful education by the Jesuits and accepted at court. Since the King had no legitimate male heir after the death of his son, Baltasar Carlos in 1646, Don Juan grew up in the unique situation of being the King’s principal support, albeit not his heir.

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A Charming River Town With Over 1000 Historical Buildings

Many river cruise passengers enjoy stopping at the sausage shop near the old stone bridge and clock tower for a tasty sausage roll. You can't miss the location it's usually packed with tourists and locals.

Regensburg has many 12th-14th century patricians' houses, as well as interesting churches, squares, and towers. It also features narrow lanes and streets, perfect for strolling. Over 1000 buildings are historical and in varied styles across the centuries, including Roman, Gothic, and Romanesque. Regensburg was not bombed during World War II, so the town is one of the best-preserved medieval sites in Europe and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

One fascinating statue in Regensburg is that of Don Juan of Austria, the illegitimate son of a local girl from Regensburg and Austrian Emperor Charles V. Don Juan led the Spanish navy in the defeat of the Turks in the famous naval battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Like many tourist destinations, Regensburg gets very crowded in the summer, but even then it is worth a visit. River cruises always include a walking tour of the town, but it's also great fun to explore on your own (and have one of those sausage rolls).


How the 1571 Battle of Lepanto saved Europe

For those who know little history, today's battle with the Islamic State in the Middle East may seem new and unprecedented. No lo es.

In a.d. 622, Mohammed set out from Medina to conquer the whole Christian world for Allah by force of arms. Within a hundred years, his successors had occupied and pillaged every Christian capital of the Middle East, from Antioch through North Africa (home of Saint Augustine) and Spain. All that remained outside Allah's reign was the northern arc from Southern France to Constantinople.

What we are seeing in 2014 has a history of more than 1,300 years — a very bloody, terror-ridden history. Except that today the struggle is far, far more secular than religious — a war over political institutions and systems of law, with almost no public argument over religious doctrine.

Edward Gibbon, in losDecadencia y caída del Imperio Romano (1776-78), describes how tall Islamic minarets could have been seen in Oxford before his birth, and the accents in its markets would have been Arabic: "The interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford, and her pulpits might demonstrate to a circumcised people the sanctity and truth of the revelation of Mahomet."

Gibbon was writing about the decisive battle of Poitiers in a.d. 732, when at last a Christian leader, Charles Martel ("Charles the Hammer"), drove back the Muslims from their high-water mark in Western Europe with such force that they went reeling backwards into Spain. From there, it took Spain another 750 years — until 1492 — to drive Islamic armies back into North Africa, whence they had invaded. Even so, the Islamic terror bombers who just a few years ago killed more than a hundred commuters in Madrid did so (they announced) to avenge the Spanish "Reconquista" of 1492. For Islam, to lose a territory once Muslim is to incur a religious obligation to wrest it back.

It had been a marvel in 732 that just over 100 years earlier, Mohammed had launched his army from Medina, to conquer in rapid-fire succession so many of the most glorious capital cities of Christianity — Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Hippo, Tunis, Carthage, and then all of Spain. More amazingly still, Muslims very quickly went farther into the Far East than Alexander the Great ever had.

Even today, in the eyes of political Islamists, the expansion of Islam is far from finished. The dynamic obligation at the heart of their Islam is to conquer the world for Allah, and to incorporate it all into the great Islamic Umma. Only then will the world be at peace. Submission to Allah is the reason the world was created.

For more than a thousand years after 622, southern Europe had to give active military resistance to the "Saracens" (as the Islamists came to be known in the West). For 600 of those thousand years, a huge sea war ensued for control of the Mediterranean, but war by land was not called off. The Turks who took over the Arab world expanded their empire in all four directions on the map. For more than a century they made attempt after attempt to take down the largest and richest of the Christian capitals, Constantinople, whose walls they finally breached in 1453. There followed great plunder, huge fires of destruction, the desecration of Christian basilicas and churches, murder, and torture. Thousands of Christian men, women, and children were marched off toward slavery in the East.

A long line of great warrior sultans sponsored Turkish advances in shipbuilding, gunnery, military organization, and training. By the mid 1550s they had slowly conceived of a long-term offensive, a pincers movement first by sea and then by land, to conquer the whole northern shore of the Mediterranean. Their ultimate aim was to take all Italy then all Europe.

First, in 1565, they launched a massive sea attack on the crossroads of the Mediterranean, the strategically placed island of Malta. They were repelled after an epic siege (which in itself is one of history's great stories). A later northern pincers movement by land was aimed at an attack up through the Balkans, for the conquest of Budapest, and then in a northeast arc into Slovakia and Poland. In this way, the Muslim forces would essentially encircle Italy from the north. The capture of Vienna — and thus the cutting off of Italy, for easy conquest — was the prize most sought.

Because by 1540 the Reformation had begun separating the Christian nations of the north from Rome, the sultans soon recognized that the Christian world would no longer fight as one. The next hundred years or so would be the most fruitful time since 632 to fulfill the destiny of Islam in Europe.

At last, Don Juan of Austria, the younger brother of the king of Spain, an illegitimate son, stood erect and summoned allies to repel the much-anticipated Muslim advance. He aimed at leading a large fleet to go after the new Muslim fleet preemptively, before they could depart from their home seas.

1. The Preliminary Battles of Malta and Famagusta: 1565 and 1571

Each new caliph of the Islamic empire was expected to expand the existing Muslim territories, in order to fulfill Islam's mission and gain for the leader the necessary popularity and legitimacy. So it was that in the pleasant springtime of 1571, an entire Muslim fleet under Ali Pasha was ordered by the sultan to seek out and destroy Christian dominance of the Mediterranean Sea, all the way up to Venice. During the summer, Ali Pasha raided fort after fort along the Adriatic shore, picked up thousands of hostages as slaves, and sent at least a small squadron to blockade for two or three days the approaches to St. Mark's Square in Venice, not least to plant a seed of terror about worse things to come.

Meanwhile, another large Muslim force soon conquered Cyprus, inflicting ritual cruelties on the defeated population of Nicosia, setting fire to churches, beheading the older women, and marching all younger Christians of both sexes into slavery. The Muslim armies then headed north for the fortress of Famagusta, the last Venetian stronghold on the island, the "extended arm" of the trading posts and protective forts of the Venetian navy in the entire eastern Mediterranean. An army of 100,000 opened the siege, against a force of 15,000 behind the walls.

Under the energetic generalship of the elderly General Marcantonio Bragadino, the small band of defenders held out for week after week, despite receiving more than 180,000 incoming cannonballs. The defenders ran so short of food that in the end they were eating cats, until finally they consumed their last one. The Muslim general was outraged by the length of the siege, which had already cost him 80,000 of his best men even though Famagusta's fate was sealed from the first days. Yet there were still long days, and sometimes nights, of hard hand-to-hand fighting just outside the walls. Muslim losses kept getting fully replenished by sea, and the Muslim forces grew stronger as the Christians got down to their last six barrels of gunpowder, with only four hundred men still able to fight.

On August 1, General Bragadino finally accepted surrender terms, which guaranteed safe passage of all his men to sail home to Venice, and safety to all citizens of the walled city. He walked with the full scarlet regalia of his office out from the walls and down to the tent of Alfa Mustafa, the victorious commander. There the two leaders conversed. Then something went wrong, and Mustafa grew visibly angry and called for his men to behead the full complement of 350 survivors who had laid down their arms to march out with Bragadino. All 350 bleeding heads were piled up just outside Mustafa's tent.

For more than a thousand years after 622, southern Europe had to give active military resistance to the "Saracens" (as the Islamists came to be known in the West).

Mustafa then ordered Bragadino's ears and nose chopped off, and forced the man to go down on all fours wearing a dog's collar around his neck, to the jibes, mockery, and horror of the onlookers. Bags of earth were strapped over Bragadino's back and he was made to carry them to the walls of the fortification, and to kiss the earth each time he passed Mustafa. As the old man grew fainter from the loss of blood from his head, he was tied to a chair, put in a rope harness and hoisted up to the highest mast in the fleet, so that all survivors of the city might see his humiliation. Then Bragadino's chair was dropped in free fall into the water and brought out again. The tortured Venetian was led in ropes to the town square and stripped. At a stone column (which still stands today), Bragadino's hands were tied outstretched over his head, and an executioner stepped forward with sharp knives to carefully remove his skin, keeping it whole. Before the carver had reached Bragadino's waist, the man was dead. His full skin was then stuffed with straw, once again raised up to the highest mast, and sailed around to various ports as a trophy of victory, and finally taken back to Istanbul for permanent exhibition.

Meanwhile, Don Juan had put the Christian fleet of some 200 vessels on course toward Lepanto, where Ali Pasha was refitting his vessels in the safe protection of an impregnable harbor. When a fast corsair dispatched from Famagusta arrived to deliver the tale of the dishonors visited on General Bragadino and his 350 surviving soldiers, the blood of the Venetians boiled. They now allowed no question of turning back. They were determined to avenge the horrors suffered by their comrades in arms.

The young Don Juan was buoyed by this new resolve. Now he would be able to keep the vow he had made to Pope Pius V, to seek out and destroy the threatening enemy. The young admiral — he was 22 when he became commander of this fleet — felt confident in his battle plan. He had taken care to have his whole fleet rehearse their roles in the quiet seas of the Adriatic just before turning toward Lepanto.

Don Juan and many of his men spent much of the night before the battle of October 7 in prayer. The fate of their civilization, they knew, depended on their good fortune on the morrow. The uncertainties of the changing winds and choppy seas, and the speed of the two onrushing lines of ships rapidly closing on each other, would create unpredictable havoc. The odds against the Christians in ships were something like 350 ships to 250. But the Christians had a secret weapon.

2. The Greatest Sea Battle in History: Lepanto, October 1571

For more than three years, Pope Pius V had labored mightily to sound alarms about the deadly Muslim buildup in the shipyards of Istanbul. The sultan had been stung by the surprising defeat of his overwhelming invasion force in Malta in 1565. The savagery of Muslim attacks on the coastal villages of Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia, and Greece was ratcheted upwards. Three or four Muslim galleys would offload hundreds of marines, who would sweep through a village, tie all its healthy men together for shipment out to become galley slaves, march away many of its women and young boys and girls for shipment to Eastern harems, and then gather all the elderly into the village church, where the helpless victims would be beheaded, and sometimes cut up into little pieces, to strike terror into other villages. The Muslims believed that future victims would lose heart and swiftly surrender when Muslim raiders arrived. Over three centuries, the number of European captives kidnapped from villages and beaches by these pirates climbed into the hundreds of thousands.

The reason for this kidnapping was that the naval appetite for fresh backs and muscles was insatiable. Most galley slaves lived little more than five years. They were chained to hard benches in the burning Mediterranean sun, slippery in their own excrement, urine, and intermittent vomiting, often never lying down to sleep. The dark vision that troubled the pope during the late 1560s was of even more horrible calamities to befall the whole Christian world, bit by bit. But unity in Europe was hard to find, and even more scarce was the will to fight for survival.

Having seen Muslim ferocity firsthand, however, the Venetian public was determined to contribute a fleet to the task. Their support was crucial, for Venice was in those days the shipbuilding and gunnery capital of the world, producers (for a profit) of the most innovative, most versatile, stoutest, and most seaworthy armed vessels in the world. The best sea captains of Venice were the most eager to avenge their friends and fellow citizens.

For years, Venice had preferred peace with the Muslim East, in order to carry on their lucrative international trade. Now there was a cause that took precedence over the traditions of commerce. Genoa, too, contributed a fleet under their famous but now elderly Admiral Andrea Doria, these days a less-bold warrior despite the glory of his earlier exploits. The Knights of Malta, the premier sea warriors of the time, offered their small but highly skilled fleet in support of the pope's appeal and agreed to work cooperatively with Don Juan.

Don Juan, whom his contemporaries described as a modest and humble man, characteristically set aside his own ego for the sake of the cause that engaged him. He pledged to the armada a large contingent supplied by Spain and Portugal. By the end of September 1571, eager to get their job done before winter turned the seas choppy and unfit for battle, the four distinct parts of the Christian fleet sailed past Italy, hugging the coasts, sending teams of observers to land to pick up the latest intelligence on the Muslim force. Finally, they learned that an enormous Muslim fleet, nearly 100 ships larger than their own, was sailing near to land toward the Gulf of Lepanto. No more talking, Don Juan told his leading admirals now, "Battle."

Don Juan, whom his contemporaries described as a modest and humble man, characteristically set aside his own ego for the sake of the cause that engaged him.

Keeping the Knights of Malta in reserve just a short distance behind the main battle line, Don Juan assigned the impassioned Venetians the important left flank, with its leftmost ships close to the shoreline. He himself commanded a hundred vessels at the center. In plain sight was his capital ship, the Verdadero, its banners of leadership visible to all. To the right flank he assigned the venerable Andrea Doria and the Genoese fleet. The plan was to hold his ships in as long and straight a line as seamanship in a besetting wind would allow, while heading directly for the Muslim line.

At his front, however, Don Juan placed a nasty surprise for Ali Pasha. Six new, taller, sturdier ships packed with cannons (especially in the bow) and heavily laden with lead and shot placed themselves a mile forward of the Christian line. They looked flat on top, like merchant ships. No one had ever seen such ships before. They lacked a bow rising up skywards, the one necessary weapon for vicious ramming. For the purpose of these new galleasses, as they were called, was not to ram oncoming ships but to blast them with an array of cannons. Their shot could carry a mile with great accuracy. When the galleasses turned sideways, they could blast with even more cannons, designed for shorter ranges, often aiming their cannon just at the waterline of their foes. They had the power to sink a smaller, lighter, faster Muslim galley with a single burst.

At first, the two fleets spotted each other on the horizon as single masts. Then they were visible in small numbers, and only as the two fleets closed to about two miles of each other could any one of the 200,000 sailors, marines, and janissaries on board catch a glimpse of the lines and dispositions of the fleets. The Muslims preferred to attack in a crescent rather than a straight line, but the winds at their back and tricky tides from the shoreline to their north forced them to straighten up their lines. Those who gazed on the massive array of ships and sails were filled with awe. One of those to be wounded in this battle, the great author Miguel de Cervantes, later wrote of "the most noble and memorable event that past centuries have seen." Just over six hundred ships in two amazingly orderly lines, each stretching three miles from end to end, silently bore down on one another as the distance between them closed. A sense of destiny weighed upon all who watched and waited.

The huge green battle flag of Allah — his name embroidered on it in Arabic some 29,800 times — marked out the tall capital ship Sultana, on which the fearsome young admiral Ali Pasha held command. Pasha was puzzled by the six more or less flat barges out in front of the Christian lines. His own armed soldiers were reliant mostly on clouds of arrows. His sailors had mastered the arts of ramming, and of disgorging massive boarding parties onto the enemy's slippery decks, then beating down their defenders by a sort of fierce land warfare out on the open sea. In those days, sea warfare was like land warfare, only carried out on open decks side-by-side instead of in open fields. Ship was lashed to ship, sometimes a dozen together. Hand-to-hand combat was the key.

There is no point here in giving the whole narrative of the battle. Suffice it to say that in the center, the volleys from the galleasses out in front destroyed one Muslim vessel after another. Masts snapped, the oars of the galleys were shattered, and huge holes opened up the thin wooden sides of the galleys to the boiling sea. The Muslim ships that were not sunk were easily boarded by the Christian ships coming alongside, built a little higher, and amply supplied not only with boarding nets but, even more important, with ranks of the old-style predecessors to rifles — arquebuses — directing point-blank rifle balls into the unarmored flesh of Muslim archers. It is true that in a few cases whole clouds of Muslim arrows felled many in the Christian ships, including the great Venetian commander Agostino Barbarigo, who was shot in the eye. But most of the Christian warriors wore the latest in body armor, which often repelled wooden arrows harmlessly. Nonetheless, at least one Christian ship was later found aimlessly afloat, with every single man dead or wounded.

At the last, the two capital ships Verdadero y Sultana clashed head-on, and Don Juan led the final boarding party which in its ferocity drove Ali Pasha to the aft poop, where he soon fell with a bullet in his eye. The Muslim admiral's head was cut off and borne aloft on a pike to be mounted on the bow of the Verdadero. The seas around were filled with cloaks, caps, struggling bodies, the vast wooden wreckage of battle, and, floating in the churning water, large splotches of red blood.

On the Christian left, the Venetians attacked with almost blind rage and broke the line of the Muslim right with relative ease. They were aided by a revolt of the galley slaves on board a number of Muslim vessels, who in the explosions on board had their chains broken, and poured up on deck swinging their chains to left and right. So great was the Venetian fury that even after the battle, many of its sailors spent hours using their pikes to kill Muslim sailors and soldiers struggling in the sea. They tried to excuse their bloodlust by saying that they never wished to see those men sailing against the West again.

In four hours the battle was over. More than 40,000 men had died, and thousands more were wounded, more than in any other battle in history, more even than at Salamis or, in years to come, at the Somme. Never again did the Muslim fleet pose a grave danger to Europe from the south, although of course Muslim fleets kept busy expanding their bases on the African coast, harassing Western ships and territories across the Mediterranean.

Technology, especially that pioneered by Venice and by oceangoing Portugal and Spain, had made the decisive difference. As Victor Davis Hanson writes, it was to capitalism that the victory was owed, for it was open markets that spurred competition to keep improving gunnery and ships, and it was the great merchant and commercial cities that built these new technologies. After Lepanto, the arts of gunnery replaced the arts of the bow and arrow, however deadly for many centuries those weapons had proved to be. Ships were made stouter, taller, and more able to carry heavy armaments — and new methods had to be sought to replace locomotion by galley slaves.

As news of the great victory of October 7 reached shore, church bells rang all over the cities and countryside of Europe. For months, Pius V had urged Catholics to say the daily rosary on behalf of the morale and good fortune of the Christian forces and, above all, for a successful outcome to the highly risky preemptive strike against the Turkish fleets. Thereafter, he declared that October 7 would be celebrated as the Feast of "Mary, Queen of Victory." A later Pope added the title "Queen of the Most Holy Rosary" in honor of the laity's favorite form of prayer. All over the Italian peninsula, great paintings were commissioned — whole galleries were dedicated — to honor the classic scenes of that epic battle. The air of Europe that October tasted of liberties preserved. The record of the celebrations lives on in glorious paintings by Titian, Tintoretto, and many others.

3. The Northern Pincers and the Siege of Vienna, September 1683

Of necessity, our consideration of the Battle of Vienna must be briefer than our attention to Lepanto. But many of the same forces were at play as before, only this time by land, not by sea. The Protestant nations regarded the expanding Ottoman Empire as a Catholic problem. Few Catholic nations took the Muslim threat as seriously as it deserved. The French, in particular, had become used to buying off the Turks with trade and commerce, rather than resisting them in war. The French even preferred the defeat of their most dreaded rivals, the German-speaking Austrians. The nation Germany did not yet exist, only a number of smaller political units — Brandenburg, Saxony, Bavaria, and others, some Protestant and some Catholic. The Muslim overland advance through the underbelly of Europe seemed not only relentless but mostly unopposed.

The sultan of all Islam, Mehmet IV, spent his days in his unrivaled harems and on his huge hunting territories, some of them as large as nation-states. Thousands of mostly Slavic serfs were required to service his hunting party, in part by driving deer and other game animals his way. To uphold his obligations to Islamic expansion, however, Mehmet stirred himself to choose Kara Mustafa to be general of all his forces in the final conquest of Hungary, Slovakia, and the south of Poland — the greatest of all ventures on which the sultan's historical reputation would rest. The sultan directly warned Mustafa not to try to take Vienna, for doing so would arouse the West to retribution. He gave Mustafa the long green cord of the Prophet to wear around his neck, both to signal the importance of his commission and to warn him that failure meant that he must be hanged — must even hang himself.

For the drive northward, Kara Mustafa sent messengers throughout Anatolia, through Greater Syria, and out to the scores of Muslim nations from Morocco to India. He marched northwards with an ever-increasing army of more than 300,000, many on horseback as cavalry to spread terror in advance of his main forces, other scores of thousands in his supply trains. This huge army took some five months to occupy Budapest, rest, and then push on northwards. They swatted resistance away like flies, and sometimes bypassed walled cities that refused instant surrender, planning to deal with them later with special severity.

By July 7, they were in sight of Vienna, which in those days was a walled and heavily fortified city, well designed by its military engineers to lay down fields of fire by which each strong point could assist its neighbors. Compared with the city today, Vienna within its walls was a small city, and yet large enough in those terrorized days to shelter refugees from nearby villages who hurriedly sought safety. Over the next weeks the sultan's armies kept tightening the ring they had established on all sides of Vienna. Both Mustafa with his green cord around his neck and General Lubomirski, the leader of the Viennese defense, now knew that they were fighting to the death.

Meanwhile, the Turks launched massive engineering works, including many honeycombed tunnels, beginning long distances away and burrowing underneath strong points and vulnerable walls that ground troops might breach. These veteran and highly skilled sappers — the best in the world — dug all the way underground to the wide moats at the base of the walls, and still farther underground to the very center of Vienna. Beginning in mid August, without any warning, huge explosions tore gaping holes in one strong point after another, and sometimes beneath homes in the very center of the city. The 20,000 or so warriors within the city fought with great determination and intelligence to drive back the screaming, bloodthirsty men who were storming through the breaches, while all around them Viennese civilians rushed to make repairs to the breaches in the walls. The Christians also sallied forth themselves, often at night, to drive far into the Turkish lines to blow up engineering devices and stockpiles of gunpowder.

Relentlessly, the Turks kept heaving up small mountains of earth and sand just outside the walls, from which fire might constantly be poured down into the doomed city. With every Muslim attack, fewer and fewer Christian soldiers were left to repel them. In late August, supplies of meat ran out, and the population was reduced to eating horses and stray dogs. A very strict rationing of water became necessary. The elderly began to die off from starvation.

Meanwhile, the Christian relief forces were belatedly and all too slowly advancing from the north in four separate columns, from Catholic Germany and from Poland, to lift the siege. For nearly 40 miles around the beleaguered city, Muslims had ravaged the land and sent refugees fleeing by foot in all directions. From captured Muslim cavalrymen and foot soldiers, as well as fleeing Christians, the Germans and the Poles picked up enough intelligence to learn that their best chances lay to the southwest, through the Vienna Wood. It would be hugely difficult terrain for cavalry, and also for quick forced marches by the infantry. But one other factor spoke for that line of attack: The supply trains and Mustafa's luxurious tents, with their splendid harems and rich treasury, were also located on the south side of Vienna. The approaching Christian generals met together to go over the plan of attack, and then rapidly set off to their southwest, far enough from the city to advance undetected.

At intervals, back in Vienna, Mustafa had messages in German tied to dozens of rocks, which he had his catapults shoot over the city walls. One such message read:

For more than 400 years, hundreds of Christian villages and cities had received such messages. The duplicity and primitive brutality of Muslim conquerors were well known to hundreds of thousands of Christian families, through the fate of relatives in other overrun communities. Nevertheless, sometimes terror overwhelmed them and they surrendered. At Vienna, behind fearless and determined leaders, they chose to die fighting rather than to surrender. So the issue inside Vienna became whether food and gunpowder would give out before the long-promised army of relief would arrive. Dauntless messengers slipping in and out of Vienna kept hope at least flickering. The commander in Vienna promised he could hold out until September 1. The advancing army of relief replied that they would need almost two weeks more than that. Only gritted-teeth determination could bridge the gap in time.

One thing the Muslim armies were not trained to do, as the Christian armies of that time were, was to fight on two fronts — against the city ahead and against any oncoming forces that might arrive to break the siege. For this, Kara Mustafa relied on his mobile cavalry, some 20,000 Tatars from the Asian steppes in camp about 20 miles south of Vienna. Because of the density of the Vienna Wood to the southwest of the city, this was the one region that the cavalry could cover only lightly. Still, if even small bands of mounted Tatars had infiltrated the hills and valleys of the Wood, no Christian soldiers could have made it through the narrow passes. Unaccountably, Mustafa forbade the Tatar leader to launch an attack on the Wood.

The ultimate issue between Islam and the West is not military force it is the depth of intellect and engagement. In matters of the spirit, we seem always to become tongue-tied, as if lacking in spirited confidence.

King Sobieski of Poland had drawn the privilege of advancing on the right flank, through the heart of the Vienna Wood. His army's double-time march through the Wood was arduous, by narrow valleys and slow but deep summer streams. Late on September 11, just as his men were making their initial contact with the Turkish outposts, and the final battle began to be joined, the king formed a resolution to attack on the morrow as swiftly and with as much surprise as possible, to overwhelm Mustafa's bodyguard of cavalry and rush on with force as close to the supply trains as he could, and to conclude the matter on the next day. In the rough terrain where his troops broke out from the Wood on September 12, Sobieski held his famed hussars back. They were his best, his ultimate, weapon.

For hours all day long, left, center, and right flanks of the Christian army advanced far more steadily than expected, although the hand-to-hand fighting was furious, and the Turkish lines were yielding only a yard at a time. The last 400 yards took an immense effort, but the Christian forces reached open ground with less than an hour of daylight left. This is when Sobieski made a huge gamble and boldly released his much-feared hussars. These famous horsemen wore special caps with strips of leather flying behind them in the wind, lined with feathers, and the wind whistled through the leather with an eerie tone. As they charged across the open land the low, melancholy wail of the wind through their feathers frightened the Arabian horses — and their Turkish riders, too.

The sheer speed and force of the Polish hussars was too great and too surprising to be resisted. Mustafa escaped, but his tents and treasury were captured (one of his green velvet tents sits now in the Czartoryskis Museum in Krakow). The Muslim lines nearby broke, and their men began looting Mustafa's rich supply wagons and pleasure tents on their panicky flight southward. The entire Muslim ring surrounding the city melted away, back whence it had come.

Mustafa, slowed by a bad wound to his eye, was rushed southward by his remaining bodyguards. From the first moments of crushing defeat he began plotting his reports to the sultan, shifting the blame onto one of his subordinates. Yet as the Christians pursued the once-great Muslim army down through Hungary, retaking one city after another from Muslim control, and in effect laying the groundwork for the future Austro-Hungarian Empire, the sultan's anger against Mustafa finally exploded. Mustafa recognized what must happen. He was hanged on December 25, 1683, by the green cord that he had worn round his neck, little more than three months after he had imagined he had Vienna in his grasp.

Thus, once again, this time by land, the Muslims had attempted to fulfill the Prophet's command to spread Islam to all corners of the world decisively, with force. The sultans had long had the advantage of an enormous standing army ready for all seasons, swiftly added to when larger ambitions demanded. This time, however, the siege-lifting battle outside the walls of Vienna marked the high-water mark of Muslim power. After September 11-12, 1683, that power kept receding, on into modern times.

Still, it should surprise no one that the date chosen to bring the new resurgence of modern Muslim ambition to the whole world's attention was also September 11, 318 years after 1683. The announcement came in the vivid orange bursts of blossoming flame and dark black smoke from the two tallest towers of the West's financial capital. Muslim memory runs very deep, and so does the Muslim imperative to conquer the world for Allah, not just by force of arms but by conversion to Islam. The West has always refused to give this long and deeply rooted Muslim threat against the West's own soul the sustained attention it requires.

Nonetheless, four centuries after Lepanto, three centuries after Vienna, today in most of the capitals of once-Christian Europe, there are more Muslims attending services in mosques on Fridays than Christians at worship on Sundays. In some ways, the pluralism of the West is a blessing, even an advantage to the West — and yet its profoundest historical weakness lies in its own divided spirit. The ultimate issue between Islam and the West is not military force it is the depth of intellect and engagement. In matters of the spirit, we seem always to become tongue-tied, as if lacking in spirited confidence. We do not insist on presenting better arguments in recognition of the inalienable rights to human liberty that our totalitarian opponents deny. Mere secular force will not do, since the fundamental battle is spiritual. Thus, the same movie seems to be played over and over.

That is the historical record, it seems, at least in regard to October 7, 1571, and September 11-12, 1683, after Lepanto, and after Vienna.

Michael Novak. "How the 1571 Battle of Lepanto saved Europe." National Review Online (October 7, 2014).

Reprinted with permission of the author, Michael Novak.

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